Beer manufacturing

Sunday, 26/04/2020, 09:55 GMT+7

All beers are made according to a simple recipe based process. The key to the brewing process is that the malt grain has been "maltized," depending on the regional characteristics that the grain used may be barley, wheat or sometimes rye.
Malt is produced by sprouting grains, then drying them in kilns or baking. The germination process produces a number of enzymes, notably α amylase and β amylase that will be involved in the conversion of starches in cereals into sugar. Depending on the level of drying process, malt will have different colors and have a great influence on the color and flavor of beer. Breweries often buy malt and this is not a process in the same brewery.
The malt is crushed in a malt mill to break down the endosperm, increase the surface area and separate the smaller parts from the husks. The resulting powder will be mixed with hot water in a device called a "sugar mash tuner" for saccharification. During this process the enzyme in malt breaks down a lot of starch into sugar - a factor that plays an important role in the fermentation process. The glycation process takes 1-2 hours and during this process, it is based on a certain temperature expectation (timeout at one temperature) will enable different enzymes to function, depending on the malt. use, their degree of variability and the wishes of the producer. The activity of enzymes converts the starches of cereals into dextrins and then fermentable sugars such as maltose.
During the saccharification process, at a temperature of 40 ° C (104 ° F) activating the enzyme beta - glucanase will break down the beta-glucana sticking during the saccharification process, helping the sugar solution to become clearer and easier to filter at the next stage. The saccharification temperature at 49-55oC (120-130oF) activates a number of proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyzes proteins that can cause turbidity in beer and produce the amino acids needed for yeast growth. However, if the hydrolysis of the protein is so intense that beer is not "rounded". Next is the temperature expectation of 65-71oC (149-160oF) in order to convert malt starch into sugar which will be used by yeast in the following stages. The longer the time it takes to wait at this temperature expectation, will produce lower molecular sugars, easier to ferment, in which case the beer will have a lighter beer flavor and higher alcohol content. However, if the waiting time at this temperature is short, it will create many high molecular sugars that are harder to be fermented by yeast, thus the beer will be rounder, stronger and have less alcohol content. Finally, the saccharine temperature was raised to about 75 ° C (165-170oF) - the endpoint of saccharification to inactivate enzymes. Additional water can be sprayed onto the malt residue so that more sugar can be extracted.
In order to separate the malt extract from the malt residue, after the saccharification process, malt porridge is pumped to a filter pot with devices with a slotted bottom or other forms to perform this task. After filtration, the resulting fluid is called the dental fluid. The wort is pumped to another pot called a flower pot. In the pot of almond blossom, boiled boiled flowers with houblon and some other ingredients such as additives, syrup (sugar). The boiling process completely inhibits the activity of enzymes, precipitates proteins and isomerizes the flower resin, concentrates and sterilizes. Houblon flowers create bitter taste, aroma and beer flavor.
The wort is cooled and pumped to temperature-controlled fermenting tanks along with the milk yeast solution, the yeast converts the sugar in malt into alcohol, CO2 and other ingredients through a process called fermentation or sugar. stool. After 1-3 weeks, the draft beer is cooled to near freezing. Yeast is drawn and beer has more time to "ripen" (annealing). After the incubation period from 1 week to a few months, the beer is filtered to remove yeast and residue. The draft beer can then be used immediately or taken away for filling / packaging.
There are four main types of beer that are distinguished based on the different types of yeast used in brewing:
Ale beer (using floating fermenting yeast): floating fermenting yeast is able to ferment at warm temperatures in the range of 12-20oC (60-68oF) and sometimes at 24oC (75oF). Pure floating yeasts often foam on the surface of the fermentation tank and it is for this reason that they are called floating fermentation although there are still some strains of ale beer yeast that settle to the bottom of the fermentation tank. Ale beer can be consumed within 3 weeks after the start of the fermentation process, but some types of beer have an additional brewing process in a few months or a few years. Beer ale has color changes from gray opaque to black.
Lager beer (using submerged fermenting yeast): natural yeast species are not fully understood until Emil Hansen (working in Carlsberg brewery in Denmark) isolates cells. Single yeast in the nineteenth century, Bavarian brewers had for decades selected lager yeast strains capable of fermenting in cold conditions by storing their beer in fish.

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